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Each passage below is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, you will consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, you will consider how the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage, or punctuation. A passage or a question may be accompanied by one or more graphics (such as a table or graph) that you will consider as you make revising and editing decisions.
Some questions will direct you to an underlined portion of a passage. Other questions will direct you to a location in a passage or ask you to think about the passage as a whole.
After reading each passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conform to the conventions of standard written English. Many questions include a “NO CHANGE” option. Choose that option if you think the best choice is to leave the relevant portion of the passage as it is.
Late last autumn, Giuseppe Ferrua  stood, on the hillside he farms overlooking Italy’s Serchio River valley, a landscape of low mountains dotted  with vineyards. Ferrua grows grapes and olives, and he does so according to the phases of the Moon. He didn’t always farm this way. When he began, he exercised modern, one-size-fits-all farming methods but says he soon became convinced that “plants are completely prone to elements in the cosmos, the rhythms of day and night.”
Following the lunar calendar, this type of farming is driven by the belief that the Moon influences levels of moisture in the soil, just as the Moon’s gravitational pull affects great bodies of water. Lunar farmers believe,  for example, that from the new Moon to quarter Moon phases, when the Moon is waxing, a soil’s moisture content increases, whereas drier periods occur during the waning phase.  Although moisture influences seed germination, a lunar guide on when to plant and weed can be advantageous to a grower.
A) NO CHANGE
A) NO CHANGE
C) by contrast,
A) NO CHANGE
B) Given that
D) DELETE the underlined portion and begin the sentence with a capital letter.
1. Best Answer: D
Choice D is the best answer because it creates a grammatically complete and standard sentence.
Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because each inserts unnecessary punctuation that disrupts the meaning of the sentence, which is to state where Giuseppe Ferrua stood.
2. Best Answer: A
Choice A is the best answer because the preposition “with” correctly reflects the relationship between the subject, verb, and object: “landscape,” “dotted,” and “vineyards,” respectively.
Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because each provides a preposition that does not appropriately represent the relationship between the subject, verb, and object. A landscape can be dotted “with” vineyards; it cannot be dotted “inside,” “for,” or “on” vineyards.
3. Best Answer: A
Choice A is the best answer because the information in the sentence elaborates on and supports the claim in the previous sentence: that lunar farming “is driven by the belief that the Moon influences levels of moisture in the soil.”
Choices B, C, and D are incorrect because they do not appropriately signal the information in the sentence, which elaborates on and supports the claim in the previous sentence. Rather, Choices B and C suggest that the writer is drawing a contrast, and Choice D introduces a time sequence that is not present in the paragraph.
4. Best Answer: B
Choice B is the best answer because it creates a grammatically complete and standard sentence. It also correctly reflects the relationship specified in the passage between moisture and the lunar calendar.
Choice A is incorrect because “Although” suggests that the second clause will say something contrary to the first. Choices C and D are incorrect because each results in a grammatically incomplete sentence.