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Traditionally, oral drugs in pill or capsule form have been designed to release the dose of medicine in the upper gastrointestinal tract, where drugs are more readily dissolved and absorbed. New research has targeted the colon as an ideal environment for drug absorption to treat certain illnesses. To reach the colon, the drug must first pass through the stomach and small intestine. Table 1 details several drug-delivery systems.
The following experiments test two of the drug-delivery systems:
Bacteria-dependent delivery. This experiment measured the average time it took a coated tablet to travel from the stomach (gastric emptying) through the small intestine (small intestine transit) to arrive in the colon. Twelve healthy men aged 23 to 25 years old and weighing between 55 and 70 kilograms (kg) who had fasted overnight were divided into 3 groups. They each swallowed 1 tablet, which contained a tracer (A or B) and 1 of 2 natural coatings (1 or 2). The location of the tracer was measured every half-hour for 12 hours. The average times are recorded in Table 2.
Time-dependent delivery. The methods were the same as those used in Experiment 1, except that the tablets all contained the same tracer and 1 of 2 outer coatings (A or B) and one of two inner coatings (1 or 2). The average times are recorded in Table 3.
1. Based on Table1, which drug-delivery system is most affected by food intake?
A. pH-dependent delivery
B. Time-dependent delivery
C. Pressure-dependent delivery
D. Bacteria-dependent delivery
2. According to Experiment 2, which combination of outer and inner coatings caused the tablet to reach its intended target most quickly?
F. A and 1
G. A and 2
H. B and 1
J. B and 2
3. The results of Experiment 1 suggest that: A. the tracer affects the drug’s target destination more than the coating does.
B. the coating affects colonic arrival time.
C. the coating affects the drug’s target destination more than the tracer does.
D. the tracer affects gastric emptying time.
4. Which average time is standard for both experi-ments? F. Small intestine transit time.
G. Colonic arrival time.
H. Small intestine transit time and colonic arrival time.
J. Gastric emptying time.
5. Which of the following is true about time-dependent delivery?
A. Synthetic polymers may be unsafe and may disintegrate in the stomach.
B. Taking food may disintegrate the capsule before it reaches the colon.
C. Delivery depends on the bacteria in the colon for delivery.
D. An inner barrier delays release of the medicine.