In the passage that follow, some words and phrases are underlined and numbered. In the answer column, you will find alternatives for the words and phrases that are underlined. Choose the alternative that you think is best, and fill in the corresponding bubble on your answer sheet. If you think that the original version is best, choose “NO CHANGE,” which will always be either answer choice A or F.
Passage and Questions:
Walter Reed’s Medical Breakthrough
Just over 100 years ago, one of the most important medical discoveries, in modern times  relieved the suffering  and saved the lives of untold thousands. This major breakthrough was the identification of the cause and spread of the disease yellow fever.
For several centuries, yellow fever was a scourge upon societies  in various parts of the world, striking towns and killing thousands of people. Thanks to  the efforts of Major Walter Reed and many courageous volunteers, the mechanisms for contracting and spreading yellow fever were uncovered.
During Reed’s lifetime, it was a common acceptance  that yellow fever was spread by contact with infected items; such as  the clothing or blankets of a person with yellow5fever. Some doctors, however, questioned this notion, as the spread of yellow fever was not consistent with the spread of other communicable diseases .
Doubts about the accepted theory’s  of the fever’s spread prompted the U.S. Army to assign Reed and several doctors to the problem. They studied yellow fever in Cuba, where they were  infecting soldiers fighting in the Spanish 8 American War at a discouraging  rate. Acting on a hunch, several doctors volunteered to be bitten by mosquitoes; the volunteers developed yellow fever. This was enough information to spur General Reed to conduct more comprehensive experiments, so helping his cause .
Which of the following sentences, if inserted here, would be the best example of how yellow fever seemed to be spread differently than other communicable diseases?
F. For example, people had no choice but to wear clothing and use blankets, so the fever could not have spread that way.
G. For example, sometimes one person would get sick in a household, while nobody else in that household would get sick.
H. For example, yellow fever caused a great deal of pain in its victims.
J. For example, some doctors were willing to go against what the rest of the medical establishment was saying.
A. NO CHANGE
F. NO CHANGE
G. the disease was
H. the doctors were
J. the Army was
. The writer wants to emphasize how quickly yellow fever was infecting the troops in the Spanish American War. Which choice does that best?
A. NO CHANGE
B. a great
C. an alarming
D. a normal
F. NO CHANGE
G. experiments; which helped his cause.
H. experiments (which helped his cause).
6. The best answer is G.
To answer this question, look for an answer choice that proves that the spread of yellow fever is different from any other disease that is spread by contact with an infected person. Answer choice G is correct because it shows that yellow fever is not spread by direct contact.
7. The best answer is D.
This question requires you to determine whether to use the plural or possessive form of a word. An apostrophe is used to show possession. Since the “theories” do not possess anything, eliminate answer choices A and C. “Theorize” is a verb that means to “formulate a theory.” Eliminate answer choice B. The sentence requires the plural form of “theory,” which is “theories,” so answer choice D is correct.
8. The best answer is G.
This question requires you to use specific language. It does not make sense that either the doctors or the Army was infect- ing soldiers with yellow fever, so eliminate answer choices H and J. Likewise, eliminate answer choice F, because it implies that the doctors were infecting the soldiers.
9. The best answer is C.
The question requires you to determine which descriptive word best emphasizes how fast yellow fever was infecting soldiers. “Great,” “normal,” and “discouraging” do not effectively describe the rate of infection, so answer choices A, B, and D can eliminated. “An alarm- ing” rate best emphasizes the rapid spread of yellow fever, and it is idiomatic.
10. The best answer is J.
The question tests your ability to express the idea clearly and simply, and to identify irrelevant information. “So help- ing his cause,” and “which helped his cause” are both unnecessary and awkward within this sentence. The most clear and simple way to express the sentence is to end it after the word “experiments.”
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